The cure for cults that want to deny others
their freedom of speech is more freedom of speech
-- Fredric Rice

---

Creationist Cults

The notoriously bizarre Institute for Creation Research (sic) cult routinely publishes equally bizarre religious notions which they wish to pretend are some how scientific. This text file takes some of the cult's own bizarre publications and takes a look at them in extract to show just how nutty (verging on the insane) these "Modern Day Flat Earth Society" nuts actually are.

Copyright by The Skeptic Tank, 2002, all rights reserved. Permission is granted to disseminate this criticism freely provided no fees or costs are associated with the document's free distribution among academia and the lay public.


This bit of occult nonsense was debunked in detail by me a long time ago. I'll present it again here, however, so that the series of sound debunkings is complete.

Green Pastures 018 - GP018.TXT
13/Mar/1997

In this issue 018:

"God is my copilot.  But as a navigator he sucks."

Christopher Columbus still has his many spin-doctors and, as
the truth about Columbus becomes accepted and the myths and
legends are slowly dispensed with, I prophecy we shall start
seeing vocal denials of Columbus' Christianity.  Like the
hundreds of thousands of Crusaders and "Pro-lifers" before
him, Columbus is destined to join the ranks of the "Not TRUE
Christian."

In the next issue 019:

"History revisionism Christian style:  Denying Adolf Hitler."

What are the words of Adolf Hitler in regards his religious
beliefs?  What are the explanations of fellow religionists in
response to Hitler's religion?

Green Pastures takes a look at the phenomena of the history
revisionism which deny Adolf Hitler's religion and explores
the explanations offered by fellow religionists for his agenda
of genocide.  Commentary solicited from a broad spectrum of
religionists include the denial that Christian hate groups
across the world are in any way Christian organizations.

God is my copilot.  But as a navigator he sucks.

"Slight of hand and twist of fate" - U2

Normally we guys and gals don't bother expending the time to
correct the "mistakes" we find in Creationist publications mainly
because Creationist literature doesn't contain anything new which
hasn't been debunked both soundly and routinely over the past ten
decades or so.  Few of us feel the need to debunk comic books --
or those who mistakenly believe in them.

Aside from the humor content Creationist literature provides, few
of us have either the time or desire to review even summations of
such nonsense.  For those of us in the computer networks, we see the
sad results of such strange religious beliefs in the illiterate and
unscientific postings of our poor fellow Creationist netizens;
Creationists who can't even acknowledge Tectonic Plate displacement,
Continental Uplift, simple biology, or the age of the Solar System
for fear of violating their religious beliefs and blaspheming their
gods.

We know what religion can and does do to otherwise rational,
thinking human beings.  We don't waste our time.

Sit back in your chair and imagine my delight when I was asked to
review a specific Creationist devotional, published in the Institute
for Creation Research's "Impact" publication, and to offer comment
upon it -- from none other than the author himself!  It's quite an
honor, I assure you.  I'm giddy with anticipation, in fact.

This issue of Green Pastures contains a copy of the original "Impact"
article, replicated fully intact and unmodified.  While you read it
you'll be tempted to shake your head and skip forward -- yet give it
a chance, okay?  Mr. Humber's efforts are serious and he deserves to
have us "infidel sinners" listen with an open mind.

After it's done I'll pick up again and provide a lengthy and detailed
coverage of the many errors and omissions.  I'll then provide some of
the references I used to collect the information used.  When I'm
done, I'll give the floor back to Mr. Humber for the final word.

"Try to hold on, trying to hold on; Keep the faith" - Bon Jovi

    -- Begin quoted text in extract -=-

    Institute for Creation Research,
    PO Box 2667, El Cajon, CA. 92021
    Voice: (619) 448-0900
    FAX: (619) 448-3469
    Number 220, 1991  (File IMP-220A.ARJ at The Skeptic Tank)

                        Columbus and His Creator
                          by Paul G. Humber *

                      Copyright (c) 1991 by I.C.R.
                          All Rights Reserved

    * Mr. Humbar, A.B., M.S., B.D., is a schoolmaster at
      The Haverford School, Haverford, Pennsylvania.
             __________________________________

        Some years ago, the _Philadelphia Daily News_ published a
    cartoon characterizing Christians who hold to the fundamentals
    of the Bible as out of touch with reality.  As an educator, I
    found it particularly offensive.  Sammy, standing on the Bible
    in a classroom with his back to the others, was looking at a
    flat "globe" of the earth.  The other students and teacher, with
    quizzical looks on their faces, encompassed a normal (i.e. round)
    globe.  The teacher, presumably responding to a student's
    question, is depicted as saying, "Because Sammy's mom is a
    fundamentalist, that's why." [1]  The intent seems to be to
    ridicule Bible-believing Christians and their view of science.

    -=- End quoted text in extract

"Now I'm a believer" - The Monkeys

Quite an inspirational piece!  I laughed, I cried... It _moved_ me.
Quite obviously Christopher Columbus had God as his copilot _and_
navigator.  All of us atheist sinners should be damn thankful that
Columbus was a Bible-believing Christian who discovered America by
the grace of God otherwise we might all still believe the Earth is
flat!

Equally obvious is the totally unwarranted comic depiction by that
horrible "Philadelphia Daily News" which tried to equate
contemporary Creationists with flat-Earth believers!  Shame on them!

If any of us are _still_ atheists after reading this, you just
weren't paying attention.  Go back and _read_ it this time!

"It's Deja vu all over again" - Yogi Berra

Oh.  After reading it the second time I think I see some very minor
mistakes; honest mistakes that anyone stuck on a flat Earth might
make.

        "Apparently neither the cartoonist nor the editors realized
        that Christopher Columbus, a round-earth activist of the
        highest degree, was driven far more by the Bible than by the
        science of his day.  A dedicated student of the Scriptures,
        he put his faith into action."  [27a]

        - Humber

The Greeks had known the Earth was round for at least 1900 years
before Christopher Columbus set sail to find a "Westward Passage to
India." [1]  The Greeks had known the Earth was a sphere and had
been calculating the approximate size of the Earth since at least
the third century.  Eratosthenes of Cyrene, Chief librarian of the
famous "Library at Alexandria" in the third century, devised and
used straight sticks and fairly simple geometry to come to some
pretty good estimates on the size of the Earth.  [27d]

During the Summer Solstice the Sun reflected off the water at the
bottom of wells in Syene, telling him that the center of the Sun was
directly in line with the center of the Earth from the Syene radian.
By observing the Sun from Alexandria at the same time, he could tell
that the Sun was some 7.2 degrees away from the vertical.  That's
1/50'th of a full circle and, with the assumption that rays of light
travel parallel to each other, he multiplied the North/South distance
between Syene and Alexandria by 50 to come to within 15% of the
actual size of the Earth.

The Greek's world wasn't flat.  Eratosthenes would have used
different geometry calculations if he had thought the Earth was flat.
Pythagoras and Aristotle before him knew the Earth was a sphere.
Educated people of Europe, Spain, and Portugal all knew that the
Earth wasn't flat.

In actual fact Christopher Columbus _rejected_ the knowledge that the
Earth was a sphere in favor of the belief that the shape was egg like
with curves "Like a woman's breast."  He was soundly ridiculed for
that belief.  ("Where," Rev. David Rice wondered aloud, "did Columbus
suppose the nipples were?")  He was ridiculed because the educated
_knew_ the Earth was round and Columbus religiously believed
otherwise.  (My seven-year-old son Stephen reports that he and his
classmates are told that Christopher Columbus believed the world was
"eggplant shaped" -- something a little more "politically correct"
than mentioning women's breasts to giggly school children.)

Columbus also thought that the circumference of the Earth was _much_
smaller than it actually is, even though there had been scientific
evidence as to the Earth's actual circumference for centuries.  [2]

What was the reason for Columbus to deny well over 190 _decades_ of
proven scientific knowledge?  The scientific knowledge was "pagan,"
not "revealed" knowledge and as such must by necessity be false.
(More on this religion-biased belief later.)

Does Mr. Columbus' reasoning sound familiar to anyone?  Does his
rejection of scientific facts in favor of religious ignorance
ring any bells?  Columbus died never accepting the scientific fact
that the Earth is an oblate spheroid or the scientific fact of the
size of the Earth -- even though he himself evidenced his own beliefs
mistaken!  Hundreds of thousands of Creationists go to their graves
in contemporary times not accepting the fact of evolution even
though they themselves directly observe the process.  Indeed, the
reason they don't accept evolution is because they have no idea what
evolution is.  [23]

Columbus wasn't the first to reject the scientific facts known by
"pagans" for centuries.  In the sixth century Christians officially
demanded that the Earth was "flat rectangle" shaped.  [28]

Why does Mr. Humber suppose Christopher Columbus was "a round-earth
activist of the highest degree?"  Columbus wouldn't accept that the
earth is a sphere due to his religious beliefs.  I can only guess
that Mr. Humber was either taught this in school else this is what
the "scientists" over at the Institute for Creation Research have
been selling to their believers.

But then there's another "minor" problem.

        "Kay Brigham's assessment of Columbus is very positive:
        `On account of faith -- ``being sure of what we hope for
        and certain of what we do not see'' (Hebrews 11:1) --
        Columbus discovered America...'"

        - Humber.

My best guess is that on the flat Earth, Columbus discovered
America.  For those of us who live on the round Earth, however,
America was visited by both the Vikings [3] and Irish seamen
at least 500 years [4] [5] before Columbus "discovered" South
America.  [6a] [6d]

Mr. Humber probably shouldn't be faulted for this mistake since
it's one of the most widely-disseminated historic fallacies in
the United States.  There is a fairly large effort under way around
the world to make the history text books reflect the actual history
of Columbus and his activities in the New World yet it's a difficult
process simply because the myths and legends are so ingrained
in world-wide belief and, more importantly, the true history of
Columbus is that of a bloodthirsty slave trading tyrant.  [6c]

Displacing Columbus' position as top dog and installing Irish
sailors is going to take some time.  Even so, the Irish Monks who
were here first _deserve_ official recognition.  [6b]

Open your encyclopedia and you'll most likely be informed that
Christopher Columbus "discovered" Central America in 1502.  If
your encyclopedia is anything like Grolier's, you'll also be
told that Christopher Columbus "discovered" America in 1492.
My very own encyclopedia [7] was published in 1948 -- a great many
years before current "politically correct" school texts started
appearing in the public schools.  Though it covers some of Columbus'
bloodthirsty exploits, it, too, mistakenly states that Columbus
"discovered" America. [27b]

While a growing number of public school teachers are starting to
cover the earlier explorations of North, Central, and Southern
America, the vast majority of the American adult population still
labors until these mistaken beliefs.  Correcting the record will
take decades.  [8]

As I mentioned before, my youngest son is getting the correct
history of the "discovery" of the Americas.  Every year, in fact,
during Columbus Day, students around the country are getting the
history of Columbus with the addendum that others were here
before him.  [9] [10]  Text books intended for High School students
are also beginning to cover the facts concerning who really
"discovered" the Americas as well as what indigenous cultures
were destroyed by Columbus and the fellow Christian monsters who
followed.  [11]  Christians who are willing to admit the evil of
Christopher Columbus and their own Church are starting to speak
out (rather belatedly) and ask the survivors of the cultures their
cult plundered for their forgiveness.  [12]

"You want the truth?!  You can't _handle_ the truth!" - Jack

And that brings up another "minor" mistake:

        "I quote Columbus, who in turn was addressing his Spanish
        sovereigns:

            ``At this time I have seen and put in study to look into
            all the Scriptures, cosmography, histories, chronicles and
            philosophy and other arts, which our Lord opened to my
            understanding (I could sense His hand upon me), so that
            it became clear to me that it was feasible to navigate
            from here to the Indies; and He unlocked within me the
            determination to execute the idea.''

No one doubted that sailing from Spain to India was possible.  It
was a question of sailing into the _setting_ sun to reach India, not
a question of making it to India from Spain -- something the Spanish
had been doing for centuries by sailing into the _rising_ sun.

            ``Who doubts that this illumination was from the Holy
            Spirit?  I attest that He (the Spirit), with marvelous rays
            of light, consoled me through the holy and sacred
            Scriptures... encouraging me to proceed, and, continually,
            without ceasing for a moment, they inflame me with a sense
            of great urgency....''"

        - Humber

Running into South America was a mistake.  Columbus, using the
"hand" his "lord" gave him, mistakenly thought he had
reached India and he called the domestic populations he enslaved
"Indians" because of it.

Why didn't this "lord" inform him that the Greek's estimate of the
circumference of the world was the correct one?  Why didn't this
"lord" tell him to stop fixating on women's breasts and accept that
the world was a sphere -- as the Greeks had known for centuries?
Why did this "lord" of his lie about there being a western passage
to India?

Obviously us atheists would never worship a lying god -- why
do Creationists?  Isn't it immoral to worship a god who lies?

            "The intent seems to be to ridicule Bible-believing
            Christians and their view of science."

            - Humber

Scientific method has no "view," Mr. Humber.  Scientific method also
doesn't have anything to do with religious beliefs -- or _any_ venue
of belief.  Electrons don't _care_ if you believe in them or not.
Gravity will work for you regardless of whether you accept its
existence or not.  The world is either an oblate spheroid else it
is shaped like a woman's breast!  There is no "view" when it comes to
science.  There is the closest approximation to truth possible and
when set against the testable claims of Creationists, science proves
their beliefs wrong (every time, in fact) -- there is no "view"
about it!

There is most certainly acceptance and denial, of course.  There is
most certainly a round world for most of us and a flat one for those
among us who need one.

As for ridiculing Creationists, we're _supposed_ to laugh at
clowns, Mr. Humber.  Even those who elect to live on a flat Earth.

"Do it in the name of Heaven, you can justify it in the end" - Coven

And where would the traditional Creationist devotional be without a
healthy dose of apologetics designed to bypass the embarrassing
inhuman tyrannies instigated against innocent people at the behest
of inhuman monsters who justify their acts using the Christian
deities?

            "Columbus sought the conversion of the natives.  On the
            premise that people are lost without Christ, such a concern
            could be interpreted as an expression of genuine love
            rather than of hate."

            - Humber

Yes, Christopher Columbus would be quite welcome among the Humanist
groups around the country today.  He was quite the humanitarian who
did all he could to bring the indigenous Indian populations nearer
to God -- by murdering a quarter of a million of them. [14]  All for
their own good, of course; all out of love for his victims.  When
done for God in Heaven, all is justified in the end.

In actual fact this "expression of genuine Christian love" _was_
exactly in keeping with the bloody history of Christianity and in
keeping with Columbus' own time.  Dr. D. Stannard covers the actual
history of this tyrant in "American Holocaust," Oxford University
Press, 1992.

        "On every island he set foot on, Columbus planted a cross,
        ``making the declarations that are required'' - the
        requerimiento - to claim the ownership for his Catholic
        patrons in Spain.  And ``nobody objected.''  If the Indians
        refused or delayed their acceptance (or understanding),
        the requerimiento continued:

            ``I certify to you that, with the help of God, we shall
            powerfully enter in your country and shall make war
            against you ... and shall subject you to the yoke and
            obedience of the Church ... and shall do you all mischief
            that we can, as to vassals who do not obey and refuse to
            receive their lord and resist and contradict him.'" [15]

        - D. Stannard

"The key to my survival was never in much doubt" - Genesis

"... Lost without Christ..."  Yet murdered and enslaved _with_
Christ.  Keeping in mind that Christopher Columbus was an artifact
of his own time, following the Christian ideals of his own age, I
can't bring myself to place the whole of the blame upon him.  The
society which felt it was better to slaughter innocent people if
they wouldn't convert to Christianity was what made Columbus the
inhuman tyrant he was -- And what allows the most bloodthirsty cult
ever created to survive to today.

Dr. D. Stannard comments further upon the slaves that Columbus took:

        "Within hours of landfall on the first inhabited island
        he encountered in the Caribbean, Columbus seized and carried
        off six native people who, he said, ``ought to be good servants
        ... [and] would easily be made Christians, because it seemed
        to me that they belonged to no religion.''"  [16]

        "While Columbus described the Indians as ``idolaters'' and
        ``slaves, as many as [the Crown] shall order,'' his pal
        Michele de Cuneo, Italian nobleman, referred to the natives
        as ``beasts'' because ``they eat when they are hungry,'' and
        made love ``openly whenever they feel like it.''  [17]

        - D. Stannard

People who know the history of this bloodthirsty tyrant also note
that Columbus so decimated his own crew that he often _required_
slaves to operate the ships under his command.  Slaves which survived
the return trip were pressed into the services of Spain's demonic
sugar industry -- the 1500's equivalent of the cocaine trade today.
(More on this slave trade later.)

Mr. Humber's audience consists of Creationists who only believe
what they are told to believe.  They're also not supposed to
learn anything they're _not_ told.  In the event any of his
intended believers hear rumors as to the truth about Columbus,
Mr. Humber has the bases covered:

        "Sadly, exploitation of peoples and lands followed in
        Columbus' wake, and Columbus himself contributed in part."

        - Humber

"...contributed in part."  On every one of Columbus' voyages he
enslaved as many native Indians as could fit on his ship.  [18]  On
his second voyage Columbus, after accidentally running his ship
aground, set up shop in Haiti and Santo Domingo, using dogs trained
to kill, to slaughter nearly every man, woman, and child.  [19]
There was no attempts at "conversion;" there was only genocide for
the express purposes of seizing innocent people's lands.  Columbus
called these lands "Hispanola" and he so decimated the populace that
his son Diego and fellow Christian slave traders were _forced_ to fan
out into the Caribbean in search of more slaves who lands they could
plunder and who citizens they could murder.

The Christian slaughters were so total that Columbus successfully
obliterated at least three known civilizations.  The Arawak, [24]
Carib, and the Taino didn't manage to survive Columbus' "contribution
in part" as Mr. Humber calls it.

        "According to Morison, Columbus and his family were
        different from many of the others who wanted ``to get
        gold quick and go home.''  Only Columbus, ``his family
        and a few faithful, humble souls'' cared for establishing
        a 'permanent settlement''' and the transfer of
        Christianity to the Indies.""

        - Humber

"...transfer of Christianity..."  Is that what they're calling
genocide these days?  In any event this is a lie.  Columbus
instituted "the encomienda system" specifically to plunder the
wealth of the West Indies as quickly and as profitably as
possible.  [20]  He slaughtered so many domestic slaves that
fellow Christians had to repeatedly request officially that
he "take it easy" otherwise there would be shortages of slaves
to run the sugar plantations.  [21]  After filling his ships
(which could hold 500 slaves) he left the remaining slaves to
his crew who raped, tortured, then murdered them.  [22]

Why didn't Mr. Humber mention the _rest_ of Morison's 1955 review
of the history of Christopher Columbus?  Did the Samuel Morison of
the flat Earth forget to include these pages?  Mr. Humber seems
to have been reading a version of Morison's book quite different
than the version here on the round world.

As for how Columbus had no interest in raping these people of
their gold, perhaps that may have been true on the flat Earth yet
here on the round Earth, gold and slavery were his primary
concerns:

        "As soon as I arrived in the Indies, on the first Island
        which I found, I took some of the natives by force in order
        that they might learn and might give me information of
        whatever there is in these parts."

        The information Columbus wanted most was:  "Where is the gold?"
        He had persuaded the king and queen of Spain to finance an
        expedition to the lands, the wealth, he expected would be on
        the other side of the Atlantic -- the Indies and Asia, gold and
        spices.  [25]

In fact Columbus was promised 10% of the profits from the lands
and people he raped -- including 10% of the slaves he managed to
bring back to Spain alive.  [26]

        "Hispaniola is a miracle.  Mountains and hills, plains and
        pastures, are both fertile and beautiful... the harbors are
        unbelievably good and there are many wide rivers of which the
        majority contain gold..."

        "There are many spices, and great mines of gold and other
        metals..."

        [The Indians] "are so naive and so free with their possessions
        that no one who has not witnessed them would believe it.  When
        you ask for something they have, they never say no.  To the
        contrary, they offer to share with anyone...."

        He concluded his report by asking for a little help from their
        Majesties, and in return he would bring them from his next
        voyage "as much gold as they need... and as many slaves as
        they ask."  [27c]

doesn't Mr. Humber relate to his Creationist readers _any_ of
this?  Is this yet further history revisionism on the part of demonic
Christians wishing to deny the history of what they have done for
their deity constructs?  Or was Mr. Humber simply totally ignorant
about what he was speaking of?  It's undeniably certain that his
intended audience buys whatever they read in their occult tracts,
of course, no matter how outrageous.  The only question is whether
these hugely important omissions were intended to deceive or whether
Mr. Humber is honestly ignorant.

"Heros don't come easy.  Nonsense isn't new to me..." - R.E.M.

And does Mr. Humber even recognize the hatred and inhuman bigotry
that drove his hero Columbus?  I doubt it.

        "Indeed, he named the very first island he landed on
        San Salvador out of regard for his ``Holy Savior''"
        (translation).

        - Humber

And just _fuck_ the fact that the people he enslaved and slaughtered
and the cultures he decimated already had names for their own
countries.

To conclude the irony, let's take a good look at this hero.

        "``Columbus always loved to apply the Sacred
        Scriptures to his own life and adventures,''"

Boy, that's certainly undeniable, brothers and sisters.  The bloody
history of Christopher Columbus certainly proves he was indeed a
Christian carrying forth in the true spirit of Christianity.  How
long will it be before fellow Christian fundamentalists start
denying it?

References

[1] - Pythagoras of Samos, 560-480 BCE;  Aristotle, 384-322 BCE.
They knew the world was a sphere.  Why didn't Columbus' "lord"
know it?

[2] - The Earth's circumference is 24,902 miles.  The Greeks had
come within 10% to 15% of this value (being off by 2,500 to
some 3,750 miles.)  It wasn't until 1615 that Dutch
mathematician Willebrord van Roijen SNELL derived a value
optically to within 5% of the actual size (being off by some
1,250 miles.)  Columbus's "lord," however, gave him several
guesses -- all of them much too short!  No wonder Columbus
missed:  He worshipped a lying god.

[3] - Visits by Vikings.  Include by deadline, otherwise exclude.
[SEVERIN.TXT provides glib reference.]

[4] - Visits by Irish.  "Navigatio Santi Brendani Abatis."  St.
Brendan of Tralee in Country Kerry, was born in 484 CE and
died in 577 CE.  He was ordered by Bishop Erc to sail
around the Northwestern Europe spreading the Christian cult.

Accounts of his voyages include visits to Northern America
yet it wasn't until 1976 that the viability of such voyages
with the tools available to Brendan was proven.  In 1976
Tim Severin undertook to prove that the voyage was possible
by first manufacturing a sailing boat in the manor of Brendan's
contemporaries, and then setting sail.

ACCOUNTS OF THIS JOURNEY can be found in most public libraries
these days.  You may also FileRequest file SEVERIN.TXT from The
Skeptic Tank for a good coverage of this journey.  National
Geographic had covered this journey in their magazine
publication as well as on PBS television.

[5] - While the feasibility of an ocean voyage by the Irish doesn't
prove conclusively that Brendan made it to North America, the
existence of physical artifacts found in West Virginia most
certainly does.

Archaeologist Dr. Robert Pyle and language expert Dr. Barry
Fell have investigated stone carvings which have been dated
from 500 to 1000 CE.  They are written in Old Irish using the
Ogham alphabet.

According to Fell, "The West Virginia Ogham texts are the
oldest Ogham inscriptions from anywhere in the world.  They
exhibit the grammar and vocabulary of Old Irish in a manner
previously unknown in such early rock-cut inscriptions in any
Celtic Language."

He further comments, "It seems possible that the scribes that
cut the West Virginia inscriptions may have been Irish
Missionaries in the wake of Brendan's voyage, for these
inscriptions are Christian.  The early Christian symbols of
piety, such as the various Chi-Rho monograms and the Dextra
Dei appear at the sites together with the Ogham texts."

[6a] - Of course is it the height of arrogance to pretend to
"discover" a country which is heavily populated and has
dozens of domestic cultures and civilization.  It's as
absurd as sailing to the South Pacific Island of Tonga and
"discovering" it.

[6b] - It may be that racial bigotry is one of the reasons why
getting the text books to correctly attribute the "discovery"
of America to the Irish.  Bigotry and hatred against the
Irish still persists and has been with us for a long time.

The Los Angeles Times, on November 3, 1994, published an
article titled, "In Honor of Charlatans and Racists:  'The
Bell Curve' pays tribute to some of history's most notorious
pseudo-scientific hate-mongers," written by Alexander
Cockburn.  (The Bell Curve is a racist book financed by the
Christian hate organization call "The Heritage Foundation.")

This article starts off by taking a look at 'The Bell
Curve's' "intellectual ancestry," listed in the book's
introduction.

    "There on the opening page is Galton, cited in
    blandly respectful terms.  Galton was a charlatan
    whose scientific procedures are well exhibited in
    his 1873 essay 'Hereditary Improvement.'  He wrote
    that, after the great famine of the 1840's, 'The
    Irish type of face seemed to have become more
    prognathous, that is, more like the Negro in the
    protrusion of the lower jaw; the interpretation of
    which was that the men who had survived the
    starvation and other deadly accidents of that
    horrible time were more generally of a low or
    coarse organization."

This attitude, though to a _much_ lesser extent, remains in
America.  (As an aside, this level of "scholarship" also
indicates a total lack of understanding about natural
selection.)

[6c] - The effort to keep Columbus listed as both discovering
America as well as discovering that the Earth is a sphere
is led by white Fundamentalist Christians.

[6d] - There are several organizations which continue to pretend
that the Earth is flat -- because a round Earth contradicts
their Christian "scriptures."

    "... [T]o affirm that the Sun is really fixed in
    the center of the heavens and that the Earth revolves
    very swiftly around the Sun is a dangerous thing, not
    only irritating the theologians and philosophers, but
    injuring our holy faith and making the sacred scripture
    false."   --- Vatican theologian Robert Bellarmine,
    early 17th century.

    "To assert that the earth revolves around the sun is
    as erroneous as to claim that Jesus was not born of
    a virgin." - Cardinal Bellarmine 1615, during the trial
    of Galileo.

One such contemporary organization is the "Tycho Society"
(which The Skeptic Tank has information on.  They are stored
within the Flat Earth archives.  There is another unrelated
organization of that same name, by the way, so take care if
you do further research to avoid mixing the two.)

Another is the Flat Earth Society:  the more widely-known
Christian mythology-based anti-science organization.
(Ironically their "academic scholarship" is equal to that
of the anti-science Institute for Creation Research's
"scholarship.")

A copy of the Flat-Earth Society's charter may be downloaded
from The Skeptic Tank.  Additionally you may contact them
directly:

       International Flat Earth Society,
       Post Office Box 2533
       Lancaster, CA.  93539-2533

       Charles K. Johnson, President
       Marjory Waugh Johnson, Sec.
       Telephone: (805) 727-1635

[7] - The American People's Encyclopedia, 1948, page 5-904 through
5-907.

[8] - There are some signs that private religious schools ---
specifically Christian schools -- have stated they have no
intention of correcting these mistakes.  The stated reasons
are many yet foremost among them is the need to deny
Columbus' bloodthirsty rampages throughout the New World and
his slave trade -- every bit of which was in keeping with
Christianity's traditions.  When I can get a private
Christian school to answer my questions honestly, I'll
include their reasoning here.

[9] - The effort to educate the adult American populace continues.
Toward this effort there are a number of books and video tapes
covering the landfalls predating Columbus.  One such video
is a brief summation intended to quickly cover some of the
salient points.  "Who Really Discovered America?"  Dated 1992
and produced by Craig Lewis, Rhonda Henry, Joe Lazores, and
Lisa Montour.

[10] - Brian D. Gallagher of "The Middle School Journalism Class,"
reports, "Bill's fifth grade class is studying European
explorers in the New World; they will be doing a play called
'Who Really Discovered America.'"  Gallagher doesn't comment
upon the content of the play, sadly.

[11] - Renardo Barden, "The Discovery of America," Greenhaven Press,
San Diego, 1989.  0-89908-071-5.

Roy Gallant, "Ancient Indians:  The First Americans," Enslow
Publishers, Hillside NY, 1989.  0-89490-187-7.

Warwick Brey et al., "The Ancient Americas," Peter Bedrick,
New York, 1989.  0-87226-303-7.

[12] - Richard Lundstrom, 1975, in his speech delivered at a
Kateri Tekakwotha conference, covered just a few of the
inhuman tyrannies inflicted upon the indigenous populations
of the nations Columbus plundered.

He asked that history not judge the man too harshly as he was
the construct of his time, a man who lived under the Catholic
dictate that all non-Catholics have no rights.

Lundstrom was a Catholic who felt that the Church must admit
to the "sins" of Columbus and his legacy else every Christian
will share in the responsibility for those sins.

FOR A COMPLETE TRANSCRIPT of this speech, FileRequest file
COLMBS.TXT from The Skeptic Tank.

[13] - Intentionally left blank.

[14] - See "Christopher Columbus Mariner" by Samuel Eliot Morison,
Mentor Press, New York, 1955, page 98.  The body count soars
to one million when the slaughters in the Bahamas, Cuba,
Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the Lesser Antilles are counted.

Ironically, Mr. Humber references this book as well yet, for
some mysterious reason, elected to ignore most of it.

[15] - American Holocaust, Dr. D. Stannard, Oxford University
Press, 1992. page 66

[16] - Stannard, loco citato, page 200

[17] - Stannard, loco citato, pages 204 and 205

[18] - Morison, loco citato, page 43 and 64.

[19] - See, "The Indian and the White Man," by Wilcombe Washburn,
Anchor, Garden City, 1964.  Pages 222 through 227.

[20] - See, "The Indians of the America," Mentor, New York,
1948. pages 79 and 80.

Also see Morison, loco citato, page 119.

This system is also called "repartimiento."

Also see, "The Indian in American History," Harcort Brace,
New York, page 32.

[21] - Motolinia's History of New Spain, Academy of American
Franciscan History, Washington D.C., 1951, page 251.

[22] - Morison, loco citato, page 97.

[23] - To let me know that Mr. Humber knows as much about evolution
as any Creationist, in private email dated 16/Mar/97 he
informed me:

    "Evolution definitely is a religion--an idol--for many."

After requesting information on what he was told evolution
is (and why he keeps capitalizing the word every time he uses
it even though it's not usually considered a noun) I received
the following:

    "Evolution (capital because starting a sentence) is the
    naive notion that everything has evolved from
    symplicity (sic) to complexity.  This pertains in the
    cosmic realm as well as the biological realm.  It clashes
    with known truth -- namely that animals are not becoming
    increasingly complex but are in fact dying off
    (extinctions!).  Much more could be said, but I do have
    other obligations."

Explains a great deal, doesn't it?  One of the requirements
for membership in the Creationist cult is the total lack of
knowledge about what evolution actually is, it seems.

[24] - Arawak.  Here's what Christopher Columbus' log has to say
about these people.

    "They... brought us parrots and balls of cotton and
    spears and many other things which they exchanged for
    the glass beads and hawks' bells.  They willingly traded
    everything they owned....  They were well-built, with
    good bodies and handsome features....  They do not bear
    arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword,
    they took it by the edge and cut themselves out of
    ignorance.  They have no iron.  Their spears are made
    of cane....  They would make fine servants....  With
    fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do
    whatever we want."

By the year 1550 there were less than 500 Arawak's left due to
the genocide instigated by Columbus.  By the year 1650, there
were none left.

Bartolome' de las Casas was the only Christian priest to vocally
speak out against the inhuman tyrannies of his Christian masters.
His own journals report:

    "Endless testimonies ... prove the mild and pacific
    temperament of the natives. . - . But our work was to
    exasperate, ravage, kill, mangle and destroy; small
    wonder, then, if they tried to kill one of us now and
    then.... The admiral, it is true, was blind as those
    who came after him, and he was so anxious to please the
    King that he committed irreparable crimes against the
    Indians...."

[25] - A People's History of the United States, Columbus, the
Indians, and Human Progress

[26] - A People's History, loco citato

[27a] - Adolf Hitler -- a man who shared the same brand name of the
Christian religion as Columbus -- also "put his faith into
action."  The results were the same  Additionally, Humber
notes:

    "That religious elements played a great part in
    Columbus's thoughts and actions is evident from
    all his writings..."

The same can be said for Hitler and Stalin.  The results
are always the same.

[27b] - Rev. David Rice notes that his dictionary claims that
Christopher Columbus "...determined that the Earth was
round..."

[27c] - A People's History, loco citato

[27d] - "Newton was greatly handicapped by the Christian-sanctioned
size of the Earth:  when he used the Christian values for
Earth's size, his planetary motion figures for the other
planets were off, but when he used the Greek figures, his
orbital predictions were precise.  This was nearly two
centuries after Columbus." - Rev. David Rice, 17/Mar/97

[28] - History of the Later Roman Empire, vol. 2, J. B. Bury,
page 321.

    "The earth, according to Cosmas, is a flat rectangle,
    and its length is double its breadth.  The heavens form
    a second story, welded to the extremities of the earth
    by four walls.  The dry land which we inhabit is
    surrounded by the ocean, and beyond it is another land
    where men lived before the deluge.  The firmament is the
    ceiling between the two stories, and the earth, the lower
    story, lies at the bottom of the universe, to which it
    sank when it was created.  There is nothing below it.
    Hence, the Pagan theory of the antipodes is a delusion.
    On its western side the earth rises into a great conical
    mountain, which hides the sun at night.  The sun is not
    larger than the earth, as the Pagans falsely imagine,
    but much smaller.  The revolutions of all the celestial
    bodies are guided by angel pilots.  [Footnote says: The
    extension of the work of creation over six days - whereas
    it could have been accomplished by a single fiat - is
    ingeniously explained as due to the Creator's wish to
    give a series of object lessons to the angels.]

This dates from around the sixth century and has its origins
in Byzantium.  After reading it you'll probably come to the
same conclusion I have:  While the scientific world progresses
in leaps and bounds, Creationists haven't learned a thing in
over 1,300 years.


Paul G. Humber "responds" to the embarrassing truth:

As promised, I solicited response from Mr. Humber which I agreed
would be appended to this article unedited and complete.  Since he's
a Creationist, however, the "response" received was as expected:
There was not even an attempt to address the lies, deceptions,
dishonesty, or any of the scientific and historical misconceptions
found among his religious rants.  There were further statements of
occult religious beliefs yet there was no attempt to address the
issues.

Indeed, it's almost as if his request for me to provide a write-up
of his Impact article was a deceptive ploy to try to waste my time.
He certainly seems to have had no interest in actually reading it.
The result of the exercise, however, remains of benefit for all of
us who fight against such lunacy:  Here is a teacher tasked with
educating children.  Horribly, he's also a Creationist.

        Date: Fri, 21 Mar 1997 09:39:02 -0500 (EST)
        From: Paul Humber 
        To: Fredric Rice 
        Subject: Re: Green Pastures

        Thank you for sending a response to my article. I would
        be happy to receive a hard copy if such exists. I know
        very little of the Green Pastures publication.  My address
        is Paul G. Humber, Upper School Faculty, The Haverford
        School, 450 W. Lancaster Ave., Haverford, PA 19041.

        Regarding the over 500 pages of materials you sent giving
        examples of organisms going from one species to another, I
        found the consideration of such things as bacteria and fruit
        flies unconvincing.  A fruit fly with or without wings is a
        fruit fly, etc.  I do not deny variations with survival
        benefit (microevolution).  I am looking for one example on
        the macro scale.

        I now better understand your objection to my calling atheism
        a religion.  I came accross the statement in what you sent,
        "Every religion is a cult." Since you probably consider
        yourself an atheist, you would not want to see yourself as a
        cultist.  You strongly object.

        Let me commend you for your zeal.  I believe it is very
        misguided (as you think me misguided), but you surely put
        in a lot of energy and time.

        -------------------------------|*
        Paul G. Humber, Philadelphia   |*
        phumber@mciunix.mciu.k12.pa.us |*
        -------------------------------|*

Copyright Notice and Such

    Green Pastures is copyright protected by Fredric L. Rice of The
    Skeptic Tank.  Written March of 1997.  All rights are reserved.
    You may freely distribute this article or fragments thereof.
    The opinions expressed within are the sole opinions of Fredric
    L. Rice.  frice@linkline.com.


Any text written by the creationist cult which may be quoted within this criticial examination of the creationist cult is provided according to U. S. Code Title 17 "Fair Use" dictates which may be reviewed at http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.html


"You can lie about ICR all you want." -- Jason Daniel Henderson

"Thank you for your permission however there's never any need to.
Creationist propaganda is already self-debunking." -- Fredric L. Rice

---

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