Petrified human/hominid and other large animal bone in Carboniferous strata

Ed Conrad can demonstrate that coal is no older than man.

It is my belief that the information on this page is fatal to the standard dating schemes of paleontology, and hence also to the standard estimates of the age of our earth. The portion of the materials involved which I have seen and touched and which are shown on these pages amount to the tip of an iceberg. Ultimately, Ed Conrad will have his own www pages which will be linked from this page.

Evidence of mining operations stretch to the horizen around Shenandoah Pa.

Ed Conrad (left) and myself discussing a petrified implement handle.

Photography by Dale Jacobson

Ed Conrad is a professional reporter and newspaperman in Pennsylvania and an amateur paleontologist/fossil-collector, and has done something which nobody has ever, to my knowledge, even thought to do before, or at least I've never heard of it: he has been finding large animal remains of unknown type, petrified bone, teeth, claws, tusks, and even soft body parts of large animals including obvious human and/or hominid bones and body parts in the areas left over by coal mining operations in Pa.

Some of the teeth and tusks and what not were in fact large enough that you'd not want to encounter the owners unless you were packing major kinds of firepower.

The tooth above, in particular, is obviously not that of a shark, or dinosaur. If it actually is a lower canine from a cat or other such mammal, than even a tyranosaur would probably not wish to face the owner.

The coal beds and seams in Pa. are all Carboniferous, supposedly the age of coal formation prior to the triassic and other dinosaur ages, and animal life in the Carboniferous is supposed to have consisted of invertibrates, insects, fish, and amphibeans at best. Sections of the Carboniferous age, in fact, appear to be termed "Mississippian" and "Pennsylvanian".

Even finding a dinosaur bone in Carboniferous strata should cause major problems for paleontology. Nonetheless, I saw numerous items which were clearly petrified bones of large animals. I saw a major piece of a petrified human/hominid skull which was sufficiently obvious to eliminate any doubt, along with numerous other human/hominid skull and facial bones, and a petrified human/hominid femur bone with all but the ends in excellent condition which Mr. Conrad had left in-situ and which involved a major hike across a valley carved by mining operations decades ago with sides which sloped upwards at a 40 degree angle and which were covered to a depth of several inches with loose shale, so that the technique required in ascent or descent was much like that of skiing steep faces. To say that it was tiring would be an understatement.

The skull shown above is from a human or hominid of modern size and proportion. Several of the other items are not. The femur bone embedded in shale and at least one mandible piece

(the item on the right actually), appear to have belonged to humans or hominids larger than anything previously known.

The bones we found there are of a dark greyish hue similar to slate, although obviously not slate, and are typically embedded in large blocks of slate, and several of these blocks contained large quantities of bone in broken pieces and small fragments in such a manner as to strongly suggest formation under catastrophic circumstances.

A piece of long bone with marrow channel embedded in shale along with other items.

The obvious bone items in Conrad's collection retain the characteristic haversian canal system of bone under the microscope, a sort of a snowflake- like system of channels allowing nutrients to the bone. Another thing which struck me as interesting occurred when examining scrapings from the mandible piece above under a microscope. We were using a kitchen knife to scrape minute particles of various bones, rocks, and what not along with the petrified specimens, and the particles from the mandible piece, in particular, came off in long, fibrous filaments rather than in flakes as did particles from other items.

Velikovsky claimed that coal had been formed by petroleum, forming as per his description in Worlds in Collision, mixed with large masses of trees torn up and piled into heaps by the agencies of catastrophe in valleys and other areas likely to catch them, all solidifying together in masses over time. To that picture, apparently, needs to be added the bones and other remains of men and other large animals piled into and mixed in with the same heaps of wood and remains of trees.

Aside from the evidence of bones, evidence of human occupation of this area in Carboniferous times included one particularly strange item: a petrified handle of some sort of a tool.

This item was totally petrified and appeared almost to be made of coal; "coalified" might be a better term. Other than that, it appeared entirely similar to and entirely as well-made as any normal handle to an axe or sledge hammer of our own day and evinced a fairly high level of technology. The grain structure of a wooden handle was there.

It appears that the bones in all cases were there first, that the shale formed up around the bones, and that the bone was then gradually replaced with minerals being carried into the cavities they left by water.

The human femur bone we saw was very large; I would guess that its owner was eight or nine feet tall. Other than that it entirely resembled a normal femur bone from a man about my size which we had along with us for comparison in photos. Vine Deloria has noted traditions of giant men in ancient times in Indian lore and you might figure there had to be such, since most kinds of animals appear to have been larger in ancient times, and yet to my knowledge no physical evidence of giant prehistoric men had turned up previously.

Vine has also claimed that the American Indian was here in America from the beginning, his most recent book, "Red Earth, White Lies", strongly challenging the standard Bering land bridge thesis. I should think that what I saw would shatter the Bering land bridge thesis for anybody with lingering doubts.

The experiences which Ed Conrad has had in trying to present these findings to scientists are entirely in line with what I would expect, given what experience has taught me about scientists in these fields. He has had several writeups in local and regional papers, including one in the Reding Eagle which indicates that all relevant tests have been done, and that all favor Conrad's claims.

Conrad has had several prominent scientists agree to the validity of his claims, and yet these had their own schedules and projects and none were willing to attempt to take any of these findings and do anything with them, and attempts to deal with the Smithsonian and with major universities has been much like beating his head against a tree and, as of the last four or five years, he had simply given up. That, of course, was in the age just prior to the age of the WWW page...

Conrad has previously assumed that his findings indicated man's presence on Earth in the accepted period of the Carboniferous age, i.e. almost 300 million years ago, and his writings in some of the documents noted here reflect that.

The evidence seems to suggest one of three possibilities:

I rule possibility 3 out from my own direct observations; the femur bone embedded in shale along with other petrified bone embedded in shale boulders could not possibly be faked. Item 1 does not strike me as plausible for numerous reasons, not the least of which being that no complex species such as ours has ever lasted that long. I thus see the second possibility as the only viable one, and would recommend the section of Velikovsky's "Earth in Upheaval" titled "Collapsing Schemes" as a starting point for anybody seeking further information. It would appear that all of the dating schemes we are familiar with are simply FUBAR, standard army jargon meaning "Fouled Up Beyond Any Recognition".

Either of possibilities 1 and 2 above should cause major grief for evolutionists; the one requires man to be here long before monkeys or apes were, the other indicates there hasn't been time for evolution.

Ed Conrad can be reached at

A special vote of thanks to Dale Jacobson (, the best photographer amongst my friends, for the photography on this page and other pages in this WWW system.

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